Professor Prakash studies environmental policy, climate governance, NGOs and nonprofits, and voluntary/private regulation. He secured B.A. (Hons) in Economics from St. Stephen's College, University of Delhi and MBA from the Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad. Then, he worked as a manager in the marketing department of Procter and Gamble, India. After completing a Joint Ph.D. from the Department of Political Science and the School of Public and Environmental Affairs (SPEA), Indiana University, Bloomington, he joined the faculty of the School of Business at The George Washington University. Since 2002, he has served on the faculty of the Department of Political Science at University of Washington, Seattle.

Professor Prakash founded the Environmental Politics and Governance (EPG) network . He is an elected Fellow of the National Academy of Public Administration . He has served as International Research Fellow at the Center for Corporate Reputation, University of Oxford and on the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine's Board on Environmental Change and Society. His recent awards include International Studies Association, Environmental Studies Section’s 2023 Distinguished Scholar Award which “recognizes outstanding scholars whose long history of excellent research and teaching has had a substantial impact on fields associated with international relations and environmental issues,” the American Political Science Association's 2020 Elinor Ostrom Career Achievement Award in recognition of "lifetime contribution to the study of science, technology, and environmental politics," the International Studies Association's 2019 Distinguished International Political Economy Scholar Award that recognizes "outstanding senior scholars whose influence and path-breaking intellectual work will continue to impact the field for years to come," as well its 2018 James N. Rosenau Award for "scholar who has made the most important contributions to globalization studies" and the European Consortium for Political Research Standing Group on Regulatory Governance's 2018 Regulatory Studies Development Award that recognizes a senior scholar who has made notable "contributions to the field of regulatory governance." In a recent ranking by of the best researchers in each discipline, Professor Prakash was ranked 38th in the United States and 67th in the world.

With Nives Dolsak, he has a byline in